The Fall of the Labor Share and the Rise of Superstar Firms

In this paper, Autor et al., analyze micro panel data from the U.S. Economic Census since 1982 and document empirical patterns to assess a new interpretation of the fall in the labor share based on the rise of “superstar firms.” If globalization or technological changes push sales toward the most productive firms in each industry, product market concentration will rise as industries become increasingly dominated by superstar firms, which have high mark-ups and a low labor share of value added. The paper empirically assesses seven predictions: (i) industry sales will increasingly concentrate in a small number of firms; (ii) industries where concentration rises most will have the largest declines in the labor share; (iii) the fall in the labor share will be driven largely by reallocation rather than a fall in the unweighted mean labor share across all firms; (iv) the between-firm reallocation component of the fall in the labor share will be greatest in the sectors with the largest increases in market concentration; (v) the industries that are becoming more concentrated will exhibit faster growth of productivity; (vi) the aggregate mark-up will rise more than the typical firm’s mark-up; and (vii) these patterns should be observed not only in U.S. firms but also internationally.  

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Abigail Gilbert

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Amazonian Era

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